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                  Articles and Technical Information

On this page you will find that the information provided is more technical in nature. This information is intended for those who are more technically minded and understand anatomical terminology.

We have; however, attempted to explain it in more simple terms, where we can, so that the information will help non-technical persons see the big picture and begin to understand how important it is to maintain proper mobility in this reign.

Topics below:

1 : The Cranial Sacral Respiratory Mechanism

2 : Fibromyalgia

3 : Trigger Points (coming soon)

The Cranial Sacral Respiratory Mechanism

First of all, what is the Cranial Sacral Respiratory Mechanism?  


                                                Figure #1

The cranial sacral respiratory mechanism is the device that keeps the crebral spinal fluid that is surrounding our brain and spinal cord moving and replenished so that we can maintain proper neurological function. Here is how it works:

The dura mater is the outermost, toughest, and most fibrous of all three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. The dura mater and its attachments determine the functional capability of the cranial sacral respiratory mechanism. It has two layers in the cranium - the outer (endosteal layer) that attacheds to all of the ridges of the inner cranial vault and serves as the covering of the inner surface of the cranial bones (figure #1). It also acts as a cuff around the blood vessels that supply the cranial bones, forms the sheaths around the cranial nerves, and attaches to the rim of the foramen magnum (the hole at the base of the skull that the spinal cord passes through). The inner (meningeal layer) adheres tightly to the outer layer.


                                                    Figure #2

The dura then extends downward after attaching to the foraman magnum, now becoming the spinal dura, it firmly attaches to the atlas, and like butterfly wings spreads out and attaches along the occipital ridge (figure #3 in red). It then forms a loose connection with the posterior longitudinal ligament (figure #3). Moving downward, it attaches to the T-12 vertebra and then down to the sacrum, making their attachment at the sacral foramen. The dura then becomes closely invested with the connective tissue of the filum terminale, the threadlike prolongation of the spinal cord. The two then continue downward and attach to T-12 and then to the coccyx (tail bone) (figure #4).


                                                    Figure #3

To put this into simple English, the dura is a tough tissue that completely covers the brain and spinal cord like a glove; it serves to protect the spinal cord. It also attaches to several spinal vertebra, primarily to the Atlas, T-12, and the sacrum. It monitors their relative positions and will activate muscles (tension along the spine and neck) when needed to protect and twist the skeletal frame if deviations are present.


                                                    Figure #4

The dural arrangement and attachments also protect and facilitate the smooth pumping of the cerebral spinal fluid of the brain and spinal cord. This is accomplished by a rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the neuroglia (glial cells, particularly the astrolites). The normal rhythm averages 14 times per minute. This delicately controlled action is termed the cranial sacral respiratory mechanism.

The dural attachments and the articular motion of the cranial bones, Atlas, and sacrum are of paramount importance to the brain and spinal cord's ability to move and replenish the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in and around the central nervous system (CNS). This insures proper neuron firing.

Disturbance or malfunction in the articular function of the cranial bones, Atlas, or the sacrum results in dural torque (a muscular twisting of the spine and pelvis). There must be compensation for the malfunction or a neurologic deficit results.

At any spinal level, torquing of the dura may result in paravertebral muscle weakness, motor unit anteriority (muscle spasm or twitching), CSF pooling, and afferent nerve impulse bombardment to the associated organs and/or somatic structures.

Compensation is achieved by a return of afferent impulses, which ultimately results in contraction of the muscles causing compensatory muscle spasm, This in turn will cause a shortening of one leg, tilted shoulders and head and; hopefully, resultant relief of CSF pooling. If not corrected though, it results in pain, disease, and pathology. The SRT Neck Release Procedure is the most efficient way to correct this problem.

This is our body's way of protecting itself when we sustain an injury. It allows us to continue to function until the injury is completely healed. Unfortunatly for most humans, total healing never occurs and we continue in compensation for the rest of our lives or until we take action to correct the problem.

What happens at the location of the spinal vertebra?

The dura covers the nerve roots, becoming the dural cuff at the intervertebral foramen (IVF) where it adheres to the vertebra. It then becomes continuous with the epineurium, the connective tissue covering the peripheral nerves. Each nerve root is supplied with arteries, veins, and lymphatics that extend from the spinal cord. Just medial (to the side) to the (IVF), the cerebral spinal fluid drains from the nerve roots and is reabsorbed into the lymphatics (see figure #5 & #2)   


                                                  Figure #5

Dural torque interferes with the CSF flow and results in nerve root congestion and swelling, causing a feeling of a "pinched nerve", it can also cause the onset of sudden unexplainable back pain, which can radiate to anywhere in the body as nerves become irritated.

Many people continue with this discomfort throughout their life and, as we get older, it will slowly transform into more serious conditions. The good news is that when stress is released from the dura, there is no longer a necessity for compensative spasm to remain or reappear. The cranial sacral respiratory mechanism has a self-preserving memory that acts like a "homing device" which, when reactivated, can maintain the body's structure to optimum functional balance.

The question now is, "what can be done to reactivate the mechanism and eliminate chronic dural torque and to reverse these symptoms?"

The answer is  the S.R.T. Neck Release a Sub-Occipital Releasean astonishing method that relaxes the Dura (rebooting the dural memory) permanently. Remove the Dural Torque and the symptoms it is causing fade away in a short time.

The Therapist, is trained to look beyond the symptoms and go directly to the cause of the problem, "dural stress causing excessive tension.

Using advanced techniques and a custom made tool, the Therapist will work to release the short musculature of the upper neck and back. Also, the fascia, dura, and other deep tissues surrounding that area are softened and relaxed, which removes all tension and torquing, allowing more freedom of movement.

S.R.T. Neck Release is considered to be permanent because the dural torquing throughout the body is then eliminated and its proper memory reactivated. Once this is achieved, the rest of the body and mind can begin to return to normal function.

For many who receive this procedure, the changes are noticeable immediately and for some the changes come along soon thereafter.

Listed below are only a few of the problems that may be caused by Sub-Occipital stress & dural torquing:

  •  Neck and Arm pain / asthma / attention deficit / back pain
  • Chronic pain / constipation / female disorders / fibromyalgia
  • Headaches / herniated discs / knee pain / loss of sleep / scoliosis
  • Numbness and tingling in the limbs / shoulder pain / sinus problems
  • T.M.J. problems / tendonitis / nervousness / depression / hip pain
  • And much more!


Fibromyalgia. What is it?  How does it develop? And what can be done to relieve it?

Understanding this disorder and discovering methods that can be applied can benefit all who suffer from it.

Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal condition expressed by widespread pain that can surface anywhere in the body.

Those who suffer from it, a high percentage being women, also suffer from tension headaches, fatigue, stiffness, and sleep disorders. Pain and fatigue for some can be so severe that they may spend days in bed. Interesting to note is that many diagnosed cases have no pain (algia) at all, only fatigue, insomnia. and assorted sleep disorders.

Research over the past 30 years has not solved the many mysteries of this sometimes disabling condition. However, there are some evolving theories that do make sense and, when they are applied, can help dramatically in most cases and complete recovery is possible for many.

Numerous studies have confirmed that those who suffer from Fibromyalgia show a decrease in serotonin levels. However, medications have failed to help most. I believe, based on these studies and in seeing good results through clinical application, fibromyalgia is a fibromyosistic pathology.

Fibromyositis is a chronic, low-grade inflammatory condition of the muscles, fascia, and other connective tissues of the body. The main cause of fibromyositis is the accumulation of pathological hypertonus in muscles over a prolonged period of time, often caused by dural torque. It can then be easily triggered by post traumatic events, stress, sleep disorders, hormonal changes, toxic chemical exposure, etc.

The Anatomy of Fibromyalgia:

Our muscles are surrounded by fascia. This connective tissue plays an important role in muscle function, length, stretch, and contraction. Fascia also provides pathways for nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic drainage. In the case of fibromyalgia, due to the prolonged pathological hypertonus (long term tension) in the muscles, the fascia will become tense causing compression of the muscle fibers, nerve tissue, blood vessels, and lymphatics.

This chronic irritation brings about the development of fibromyositis. The constant muscle tension will also cause an overload (strain) on the muscles and tendons, which eventually leads to inflammation, tendonitis, and other dysfunction.

If not corrected, this chronic inflammatory condition always promotes calcium deposits in muscles and tendons, including the tendon attachments at the periosteum (the tissue covering the bone where muscles attach).

At this point the chronic inflammatory condition is causing secondary changes in neurotransmitter levels and activities in the central nervous system. This is caused by the build up of toxic waist, lactic acid, and calcium deposits that cannot be released due to the compressive tennsion and dysfunction of the muscles and fascia.

Chronic Fatigue and Weakness in fibromyalgia patients:

Authors of many studies have also detected sugnificant depletions of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) concentrations, as well as other high-energy phosphates in the muscles of fibromyalgia patients.

ATP is a major energy source for muscular contraction. When a muscle receives a command to contract, it uses ATP molecules to achieve the contraction. When a muscle is relaxed it again uses ATP molecules to detach Myosin from Actin, which in return allows the muscle to relax.

If a person is deficient in ATP, the muscle will use all available ATP to contract. When it's time to relax, the muscle does not have enough ATP left to release all of the muscle fibers. In such a case, some of the muscle fibers remain in the contracted state, even during periods of relaxation. Now we have chronic tension. This tension builds up not only in the muscles but in the fascia, aponeuroses, and other soft tissues. This causes a decrease in elasticity and begins to effect microcirculation which will lead to changes in local pH, followed by activation of the pain receptors - this is where we start to feel pain.

Changes in neurotransmitter activities become apparent at this stage. The level of Substance-P (a neurotransmitter responsible for pain conduction through the spinal cord) increases and levels of serotonin decrease. Decreases in serotonin are known to cause depression.

At the cellular level, the mitochondria in cells are little power plants that synthesize ATP using magnesium to mediate this process. Fibromyalgia patients are also found to be deficient in magnesium, which also contributes to the overall energy crisis.

In 1968, in Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine, workers of a large industrial complex started developing fibromyalgia symptoms in epidemic proportions. The soviet government assigned a group of scientists to find the causes of this epidemic.

The scientists eventually found that an adjacent lake, heavily contaminated with toxic waste, was causing muscular tension. Over time, this led to the development of fibromyalgia. What these scientists learned was that individuals suffering from myofascial pain syndrome (which I will talk about in the next article) have a higher risk of developing fibromyalgia.

To remove the symptoms one must first remove the cause.

In the case of fibromyalgia, there is usually more than one cause and sometimes it takes time to identify and eliminate them all.

The chronic tension in many cases can be due to an over stressed upper neck and shoulders. This is addressed in the first office visit to our clinic by receiving the S.R.T. Neck Release Procedure and other advanced massage techniques to remove Trigger-Points. For many, one procedure is all a person will ever need; however, if additional visits are required, we then look at what tension may be left or has returned, and recommend weekly massage for a while.


1. Abraham,GE., and I.D. Flechas. Managment of Fibromyalgia: Rationale for the use of Magnesium and Malic Acid.Journal of Nutritional Research,3:39-59, 1992

2. Bengtsson,A. F.G. Henrikson, and J Larsson. Reduced High-Energy Phophate Levels in the Painful Muscles of patients with Primary Fibromyalgia. Arth Rheum, 29:817-821, 1986

3. Bebbett,R.M. Myofascial Pain Syndromes and the Fibrimyalgia Syndrome: A Comparative Analysis. J Manual Med, 6:34-45, 1991

4. Bland, J.S. Fibromyalgia and Myofacial Pain. Applying New Essentials in Nutritional Medicine, HealthComm intern, 1995

5. Eisinger,J., K. Mechtouf, and A. Plantamura. Anomalities Biologiques Au Cours Des Fibromyalgies: I. Lactacidemine et Pyruvicemine. Lion Mediterranee Med, 28:851-854, 1992

6. Goldberg, D. Fibromyalgia Syndrome: An Emerging but Controversial Condition. Journal of the American  Medical Association. 275(20):2782-2787, 1987.

7. Moldofsky. H., P. Saskin, and L. Salem. Sleep and Syndroms of Postinfectious Neuromyastenia and Fibrositis Syndrome. Sleep Res, 16:492, 1987

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